Volume 17, Issue 3 (2014)                   mjms 2014, 17(3): 1-24 | Back to browse issues page

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Zarkesh M, Taghaddosi M, Azizi F, Zadeh-Vakili A, Hedayati M. Importance of Epigenetic Changes in the Thyroid Cancer Incidence and Their Therapeutic Applications. mjms 2014; 17 (3) :1-24
URL: http://mjms.modares.ac.ir/article-30-10579-en.html
1- Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2- Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran
3- Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (16616 Views)
Thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy worldwide, originates from follicular epithelial cells. It is classified as a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC), which includes both follicular (FTC) and papillary types (PTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas (PDTC), anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), and/or arising from para-follicular calcitonin producing cells involve medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC[ss1] ). “Epigenetic” refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without any alteration in the pattern of the primary DNA sequence. Growing evidence shows that epigenetic changes play important roles in thyroid carcinomas and, together with genetic changes, lead to tumorigenesis. Epigenetic silencing of various genes specific for thyroid differentiation have been detected in thyroid tumors. These changes in tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressor genes also contribute to the dysregulation of thyrocyte growth and other aspects of tumorigenesis. However, at present, no promising treatment is available for advanced thyroid cancer, which is unresponsive to radioiodine. Biologically targeted therapies for advanced thyroid carcinomas have been proposed based on the recognition of main oncogenic mutations. In this review we discuss the most frequent epigenetic variations in different types of thyroid cancer, epigenetic strategies for treating this carcinoma, and experimental data and clinical trials, particularly those that use deacetylase inhibitors and demethylating agents.
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Article Type: Review | Subject: Medical Genetics|Molecular Genetics|Genetics|Molecular
Received: 2014/02/15 | Accepted: 2014/06/2

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